Tag Archives: Indian Calendar

Election drama from the ‘K’ States in South India. Kerala and Karnataka. #LokSabha2019

South Indian dishes are so different from North India just like the politics of South India and North India. Like North India, South India doesn’t actually vote for the National Parties but they chose regional parties over the National parties. It’s the same when it comes to Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. But then there are two states Kerala and Karnataka which are in line with the North Indian states.

Both Kerala and Karnataka have had the history of voting National Parties to power which is why we don’t get to see major regional parties in these two states. Kerala for its own reasons revolves between Congress and CPM. Karnataka votes between Congress and BJP. The late 20th-century entrant into Karnataka was Deva Gowda’s JDS.

Karnataka had been a special place for Congress till 1991 where they had won almost 80%-100% seats from 1951 to 1991. Of the total 28 seats in Karnataka, Congress was winning 25-28 seats till 1991. Things changed then and the major shift happened in 1996 when JDS led by Deva Gowda won 16 seats and became the Prime Minister. Then the second shift happened in 2004 where Karnataka started to vote for BJP and BJP was winning anywhere between 17-19 seats.

Karnataka is divided into four regions. Below are the regions and the seat numbers part of those regions.

  • Mumbai Karnataka which has seats like Belgaum, Hubli etc
  • Coastal Karnataka which has seats like Mangalore, Udupi etc
  • Hyderabad Karnataka which has news like Gulbarga, Bellary, Raichur etc
  • Old Mysore which is the largest with 13 seats that include Bangalore, Mysore, Tumkur etc

Of the 28 seats and in the four regions, BJP will win in Mumbai Karnataka and Coastal Karnataka as these are traditional BJP seats and they are with BJP for last 15 years. These two regions are strongholds of BJP, Hyderabad Karnataka and Old Mysore are the JDS+Congress strongholds. With JDS and Congress coming together the vote share will surely increase for the coalition which will pose a challenge to BJP. This time there could be a vertical split with 28 seats going 14-14 to BJP and Cong-JDS combine. This is only because of Cong-JDS alliance else, BJP would have again crossed 18 seat mark.

Kerala the fortress for Communist Party of India (Marxist), but only alternatively.

Kerala has been the place for CPM and Congress for a long time. Kerala is divided into two regions, North Kerala and South Kerala. Kerala has got 20 seats and the polling for all the 20 seats will be on April 23rd. In the 2014 elections, UDF led by Congress won 12 seats and LDF led by CPM won 8 seats. That’s the competition between the Congress and Communist party in Kerala.

There are some surprises which could come up in this elections in Kerala and that could be a win for BJP for the first time. BJP is hoping to win two seats. One is the Thiruvananthapuram seat which they lost by a small margin and second is Thrissur which has sizable Hindu population and from where famous actor Suresh Gopi is contesting from BJP ticket. One seat where BJP can give some competition to CPM is the Kasargode seat where religious polarization due to the killing of RSS workers might make the Hindus to shift votes to BJP.

But the tide is expected to be in the way of Congress this time with 14-15 seats coming their way. Wayanad is the seat that has caught all the attention after Rahul Gandhi has nominated himself from there, this decision of Rahul is being highly trolled by BJP. But then ultimately, Wayanad is a strong seat for Congress and with Rahul contesting it’s going to an easy job for INC and Rahul Gandhi to become part of 17th Lok Sabha. CPM is losing badly this time with just 3 seats coming their way and BJP could be the surprise with 2 wins and 1 very tough race.

So, of the 48 seats from Karnataka and Kerala, Congress is expected to win 28-30 seats, 14 each from Karnataka and Kerala. BJP is only expected to win 15-17 seats. The other 3 seats are going to CPM. This means that the ‘K’ states are giving huge wins for UPA led by Congress.

What is Adhik Maasam or Adhik Maas? How do we Calculate it!?

The topic for today is “Adhika Maasam”.

Generally, we know that there are 12 months in a Calendar year. Hindu calendar also has 12 months in a year, but each month is not 30 or 31 days as we see in English Calendar. This differentiation is because we follow Moon’s Movement whereas English Calendar is made based on Sun’s Movement. So as per Telugu Calendar or Moon calendar, a month is exactly 29 days 10 hours and 48 minutes to sometimes 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes. On an average a month stays for 29.5 days. 29.5 days multiplied by 12 months gives us the total days as 354 days.

The difference then between Lunar Calendar 354 days and Solar Calendar 365 days and 6 hours is 11 days 6 hours. That difference must be corrected. Every third year this shortfall gets corrected as an extra month and that is called as Adhika Maasam.

I will make it simpler:

365 – 354 days = 11 days 6 hours (gap)

For example:

2015-16   In 1st year 11 days 6 hours

2016 –17  After 2nd year 22 days 12 hours

2017 –18  After 3rd year 33 days shortage

Even before we complete the third year the shortage hits more than 30 days and that is why in the middle of the third year or by the end of third year, we will see the Adhika Maasam coming. This is also called as Purushotam Adhika Maasam.

Adhika Maasam comes in four combinations not exceeding three years.
  1. 2 years and 4 months
  2. 2 years and 9 months
  3. 2 years and 10 months
  4. 2 years and 11 months

Factually, in 2015 Adhika Maasam came in the month of Ashada – fourth month of 12 months. Another point to be noted is that always Adhika Maasam goes in the order that was given above. As in 2015 Adhika Maasam came in the month of Ashada which is the 4th month, this year in 2018 it has come in the month of Jyestha which is the 3rd month. This Adhika masa came in 2 years and 11 months and so the next adhika masa comes after 2 years 4 months. That would be in the year 2020 year Ashwaija masam. The next Adhika masam after that will come in 2 years and 9 months which is 2023 Sravana masam.  There would be no Adhika maasam in Margashira, Pushya and Magha months as they are very auspicious months as they fall in Uttarayan time period.

Adhika Maasam is believed to be very bad for any auspicious things may it be education, marriage or anything that anyone is starting afresh. People completely avoid this month and are switch on to holiday mood. In ancient days, people don’t count the interest rates also for the Adhika Masa. Hope you got all that you want to know about Adhika masa and this Adhika masa which started on 16th May will last till 13th June, the holiday period for all important activities!!!

Indian Calendar and it’s Composition – Seasons, Months and Days (Ruthu, Maasa and Thithi)

Indian Calendar/Hindu Calendar

Today I am going to talk about a very simple but interesting topic and that is a calendar. Calendar as everybody knows is a 12-month period representation of a year. Calendar is like a register that gives us the list of days, weeks and months in one year.  Each month on an average consists of 30 days. January, March, May, July, August, October and December are the one’s with 31 days. Feb has 28/29 days. April, June, September and November are the one’s with 30 days. This is the Gregorian calendar which is the refined calendar adopted in 1582. Though many of the countries didn’t like this idea slowly all of them started adopting this in years to come. Now almost all the countries follow the Gregorian calendar. But in different countries there are people who follow their own traditional calendar which is formed out of Zodiac sign movements. Though they follow Gregorian Calendar in general, but for certain special activities and events they use their historic Calendar. Chinese, Japanese, Europeans all have their own calendar system different from Gregorian calendars.

I am going to talk about the Telugu calendar today and explain how date, time and seasons are measured as per Telugu calendar. First let me tell you all that the Telugu calendar cycle lasts for 60 years. Each year of that 60 years have 60 different names. Presently we are in ‘Hevalambi’ 31st year in the 60-year cycle. It is to be believed as per Hindu Traditions that a human being can live upto 2 cycles that is 120 years.

Let me now explain the Indian Calendar or Hindu Calendar which Indians follow for any kind of activity or event planning and execution. Like Gregorian, Hindu calendar also has 12 Masamulu, each month lasts 29/30 days.

Below is the list of twelve months that form Telugu/Hindu Calendar:

  1. Chaithramu (March-April)
  2. Vaisaakhamu (April-May)
  3. Jyeshtta (May-June)
  4. Aashaadhamu (June-July)
  5. Sraavanamu (July-August)
  6. Bhaadhrapadamu (August-September)
  7. Aasveeyujamu (September-October)
  8. Kaarthikamu (October-November)
  9. Maargaseershamu (November-December)
  10. Pushyamu (December-January)
  11. Maakhamu (January-February)
  12. Phaalgunamu (February-March)

The Seasons and Months!

We have just seen the 12 months and their names. Seasons are the integral part of any calendar. There are 6 seasons or ruthuvulu. Here is the list of the seasons as per Hindu calendar and the months.

Telugu Name English Name Telugu Maasalu
Vasantha Ruthu Spring Season Chaitram and Vaishakam
Greeshma Ruthu Summer Season Jyestha and Aashadam
Varsha Ruthu Rainy Season Sravanam and Bhadrapadham
Sarath Ruthu Moon light Season Aasvejam and Karthikam
Hemantha Winter Season Maargaseeram and Pushyam
Sisira Ruthu Autum Season Maagha(Maakham) and Phaalgunam

That’s how the 6 seasons are distributed across twelve months as per Hindu Calendar.

Every month in Hindu calendar months is divided into two parts called as Paksha. Each Paksha is equal to 14/15 days. The first 14/15 days of the month is called as Shukla Paksha which is a transition from New Moon to Full Moon and the second 14-15 days of the month is called as Krishna Paksha which is a transition from Full Moon to No Moon.

Simply put

  • Shukla Paksha is the period of brightening moon – Amavasya to Pournami
  • Krishna Paksha is the period of fading moon – Pournami to Amavasya

In Telugu calendar each day has its own name and are called as Thitis. Below are the Thitis of a month as per the telugu calendar:

  1. Padyami (first day)
  2. Vidiya
  3. Tadiya
  4. Chaturdhi
  5. Panchami
  6. Shashti
  7. Saptami
  8. Ashtami
  9. Navami
  10. Dasami
  11. Ekadasi
  12. Dwadasi
  13. Trayodasi
  14. Chaturdasi
  15. Poornima or Amavasya (end of a paksha)

Next comes the crucial DAY!

After introducing the 60-year cycle, 12-month year, 2-months seasons, 15-days paksha; now I will explain the most interesting and shocking part of this post and that is about Day. What we all follow is the clock or time pattern which is 24 hours in a day or 1440 minutes per day or 86400 seconds. But as per the Indian calendar the measuring parameters of time are Ghadi, Pal and Vipal.

Ghadi is hours, Pal is minutes and Vipal or Istha kaal is seconds.  Like the new day starts at 12:00 am as per English calendar, the new day starts at Sunrise time in Indian Calendar. Below points will give you more clarity about the day and time patter in Indian Calendar.

  • Like 24 hours = Day in English Calendar, 60 Ghadis = Day in Indian Calendar
  • Like 60 minutes = hours in English Calendar, 24 Minutes = Hour in Indian Calendar
  • Like 60 seconds = minutes in English Calendar, 24 Seconds = minutes in Indian Calendar.

Divas = Day

Finally, Divas is equal to 30 Ghadiyas of day time and 30 Ghadiyas of night. So, technically Indian day has 60 hours as compared to 24 hours of the western system.  So, in an hour we have 2.5 ghadiyas each lasting for 24 minutes and as I have already explained the day starts from sun rise. For example I will tell you the time now as per the Indian system of calculation. When am writing this post this is the time.

timeHere the time is 22 hours 29 minutes and 7 seconds as per western time. The Indian time given is 39 ghadis 13 pals and 10 vipals. Let’s see how we got this. In Hyderabad Sunrise happened at 6.48am today so that is the beginning of the day which is counted as 00:00:00. Exactly at 6.48PM it is 30 ghadis. From 6.48PM to 10.29PM its 3 hours and 41 minutes or 221 minutes. Now each ghadi is 24 mins. So, if we divide 221 by 24 we get 9.2 ghadis and that 0.2 ghadis equal to 13 pals. Adding this to 30 we get 39 ghadis and 13 pals.

Now you understood how accurately our ancestors were measuring time. Their measurement started from a milli second called vipals went to seconds called pals, went to ghadis called minutes/hours and to days to pakshas to months to seasons to years and finally to a big cycle of 60 years. Hope you all enjoyed reading it and post any queries you have, will try answering them!

Indian Festivals-Origin and Date calculation

Festivals are an integral part of India. Indians are known for different celebrations of different festivals. Our Festivals are just not celebrated in India but in the many other countries as well. Latest example is Barack Obama celebrating Diwali in whitehouse.

But have you ever noticed that festivals like Christmas fall on the same day every year but many of our festivals fall on different dates!

Yes, the dates of these festivals change but the duration between one festival to another doesn’t change. For example, Dussehra and Diwali might come on different days every year but the time gap between the both always remains constant at 20 days.

How is it possible? Let’s find out!

To start off in India we celebrate two types of festivals
1. Birthday’s
2. Events Festivals

We call Birthday’s as Jayanthi like Krishna Jayanthi, Mahavir Jayanthi etc.; and for the events, festivals are related to events like Rama killing Ravana celebrated as Dussehra and Rama’s return Ayodhya celebrated as Diwali.

Now, let us understand the timing of these festivals

1. Ugadi is the new year which is taken as benchmark to other festivals. It comes on the next day of New moon between second week of mark to 1st week of April. This is
the beginning of first month of Chaitra.

2. 8 days after new year is celebrated as Ram Navami. Navami means 9th Day and the gap between 1st day and 9th day is 8 days. Ram Navami is birth day of Lord Rama the greatest Mythological ruler.

3. After Ram Navami, we have 3 months gap where on sunday around a full moon day of the fourth month Ashadam is celebrated as Bonalu in Telangana. Bonalu is the festival offering harvest to the goddess wishing and praying for prosperity and growth.

4. Exactly one month later full moon day of 5th month Shravana is celebrated as Raksha Bandhan. It is a festival symbolizing the brother and sister relationship in India since ages and now it widely celebrated in other countries too.

5. Exactly 7 days after Raksha Bandhan we have Krishna Janmasthami the birth of lord Krishna. We all know the pivotal role of Krishna in Kurushektra war who mentored Pandavas in defeating Kouravas.

6. 11 days after Janmasthami is Ganesh Chaturthi which falls on the fourth day of 6th month Bhadrapada. Ganesh Chaturthi is the Birthday of Lord Ganesh who is termed as God for Ridhi, Buddhi and Siddhi, which means Prosperity, Intellect and Spirituality.

7. After 36 days gap, on the 10th day of 7th month Ashweija is celebrated as Dussehra or Vijayadashami. This festival symbolizes win for good over evil.

8. 20 days after Dussehra on the last day of Ashweija we celebrate Diwali. It is celebrated as Lord Rama returns to native Ayodhya after his 14 years exile.

9. 15 days after Diwali in the 8th month of Karthika we celebrated it as Karthik Pournami. This is the month when many Indian women fast and pray for prosperity of their families.

10. Then there is more than 3 months gap on 29th day of the 11th month Maagha. This festival is Maha Shivratri the birth day of Lord Shiva.

11. 17 days after this is Holi. Holi falls on the full moon day of the last month of the year Phalguna. Holi is the festival of spring and colors.

12. Apart from this there is one festival called Makara Sankranti which follows solar calendar and comes on 14th January evert year. Makara Sankranti is harvest festival and also the beginning of Uttarayan or the northern movement of sun.

To summarize

1. Ugadi 1st day after new moon anytime between March 2nd and April 1st week
2. Ram Navami 8 days after Ugadi
3. Bonalu is 94-98 days after Ram Navami
4. Raksha Bandhan full moon day of the 5th month
5. Krishna Janmasthami 7 days Raksha Bandhan
6. Ganesh Chaturthi 11 days after Krishna Janmasthami
7. Dussehra is 36 days after Ganesh Chaturthi
8. Diwali is 20 days after Dussehra
9. Karthika Pournami is 16 days after Diwali
10. Maha Shivratri 100-101 days after Karthika Pournami
11. Holi 17 days after Maha Shivratri
12. Makara Sankranti is 14th of January every year

Thus, if you can find the date of Ugadi you can easily find out the dates of all other festivals.